He was born into the family of Georgian Catholics. He began studying in the elementary school founded by Ioseb Otskheli, a famous Georgian teacher and public person. Afterwards, he went to Kutaisi Classical Gymnasium. In 1913, he became a student of Petersburg University, Faculty of History and Philology. In the same time, Kaukhchishvili begins to study at the Faculty of Oriental Languages, Georgian-Armenian section. His teachers were famous Nicholas Marr and Ivane Javakhishvili.
In 1917, he successfully graduated from Petersburg University and returned to Georgia. He began to teach the history of ancient countries and the Georgian history at the woman seminary. From 1918, Kaukhchishvili worked in Tbilisi University where he continued his studies to receive a doctoral degree in Greek-Byzantine Philology.
In 1920, he published his first famous work Chronography of the Monk Giorgi (Georgian translation Chronography by Giorgi Amartoli). In the next two months, Kaukhchishvili was sent to Athens, were he studied the Modern Greek language and Greek literature and manuscripts of Byzantine period. Later, he moves to Berlin, were he works with famous specialists of Greek Literature; at the same time, he studied to work on the historical sources, epigraphy, and palaeography.
In 1923, he began to teach in Tbilisi State University.
In 1927, he became head of the chair of Byzantinology. During the Soviet regime, he was forced to leave his chair, deprived of his title as a member of the Georgian Academy of Sciences he regained in 1950. He was rehabilitated both times, but before this, he was forced to move to Moscow and to work at the Institute of World Literature of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Section of a\Ancient Literature in 1939-1940).
In 1960, as soon as the Institute of Oriental Studies was founded, he became head of the Section of Byzantinology.
In 1969, he regained his title of Academician of the Academy of Sciences. Kaukhchishvili was a distinguished Georgian scientist whose works launched the Georgian classical philology. Simon Kaukhchishvili is an author of many important works on the history of Petritsoni Monastery. Kaukhchishvili is an author of the only Georgian manual for the history of Byzantium Lectures on the Byzantine History (Tbilisi, 1948).
Simon Kaukhchishvili died in Tbilisi in 1981.