He was Head of the Geology and Paleontology Department in 1924-1972 and Rector of the university in 1942-1945. In addition, he led the Geology Department at the Georgian Polytechnic Institute in 1928-1946, and presided over the Geology Institute, which he established in 1925. In 1941, he was one of the founders of the Georgian Academy of Sciences and was a member of the Presidium in 1941-1972. He led the Department of Mathematical and Natural Sciences at the GAS in 1941-1963 and served as the vice-president of the academy in 1951-1955. In 1933, he became one of the founders of the Geological Society of Georgia. He was also a member of the Geological Society of France. He authored numerous works on geology, paleontology, and tectonics, which laid the foundation for their respective fields of study. The Geology Institute was renamed in his honor and the Georgian Academy of Sciences established the Janelidze Prize in 1982.
Alexander Janelidze died in 1975; he was buried in Didube Pantheon of Public Figures. One of the Tbilisi’s streets is named after Alexander Janelidze.