The National Library of Georgia მთავარი - ბიბლიოთეკის შესახებ - ელ.რესურსები
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წიგნის დახურვა Lazeti-Trialeti (Georgians’ Hellenization)
დოკუმენტის ნახვა * * *
დოკუმენტის ნახვა Georgians' Hellenization
დოკუმენტის ნახვა Urums living in Ottoman Empire
დოკუმენტის ნახვა Increase of rights of Greek Church in Turkey
დოკუმენტის ნახვა Georgians' Hellenization in Ottoman Empire
დოკუმენტის ნახვა Grecian-Urums exile on the modern territory of Georgia
დოკუმენტის ნახვა Georgians' Hellenization the modern territory of Georgia
დოკუმენტის ნახვა Changed Surnames

Lazeti-Trialeti (Georgians' Hellenization)

ანანია [ჯაფარიძე] (მიტროპოლიტი)
© მიტროპოლიტი ანანია ჯაფარიძე
1999
სამოქალაქო განათლების განყოფილება
ARCHBISHOP ANANIA JAFARIDZE Series: Georgians’ historian destiny separated from Georgian church © Anania Jafaridze. 1999. Introduction Urums living in Ottoman Empire Increase of rights of Greek Church in Turkey Georgians’ Hellenization in Ottoman Empire Grecian-Urums exile on the modern territory of Georgia Georgians’ Hellenization on the modern territory of Georgia Surnames Eparchy of Georgian patriarchate of Manglis-Tcalka 1999
 


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In the series of monographs of ?Georgians' historian destiny separated from Georgian church? archbishop Anania Jafaridze expounds the destiny of that Georgians who lived on the conquered territories of Georgia and who left the national churches becoming the perish of the foreign church. Unfortunately, a big part of them were ethnically degenerated.

In the above mentioned work which is based on the historical sources is expounded the destiny of orthodox Georgians who lived in the South of Georgia (concretely in Lazeti and Meskheti) conquered by Ottomans and according to the Ottomans' jurisdiction they became the perish of Grecian patriarchate of Constantinople. The work consists of the paragraphs: Georgians' Hellenization, Urums living in Ottoman Empire, Increase of rights of Greek Church in Turkey, Georgians' Hellenization in Ottoman Empire, Grecian-Urums' exile on the modern territory of Georgia, Changed Surnames and so on.

The book is intended for the consolidation of national consciousness in Georgian migrants in order to keep them with national churches and not to allow them to become perish of the foreign church.

Publishing house blesses the company ?Esab? and its personals for the assistance.

Georgians' Hellenization

 

Introduction?

There was the process of different tribes' Hellenization in Old Greece and Byzantium between them was Georgian. After the fall of Byzantine Empire the process continued even in Ottoman Empire. Furthermore, Georgians' process of assimilation with Greeks continued even on modern territory of Georgia in XIX century, concretely in province of Tbilisi. A lot of scientists write about the Hellenism in Ottoman Empire, especially have to be mentioned work of Tcate Batcashi but on the modern territory of Georgia the process is described by Jacob Akhuashvili and other researchers.

Georgians' Hellenism was conditioned by the different reasons. It could be political, economical and especially religious factors. It has to be mentioned that the major reason of Georgians' assimilation with the other nations was low level of national self-knowledge in XVI-XIX centuries.

I.Akhuashvili writes: ?what had taken our ancestor to this kind of existence?? The answer partly can be found in work of F.Bodenshtet (1847) who writes: ?Georgian is careless and they do not think for tomorrow…they are faithful as their sword, fast and quick as their horses…? but only this kind of positive characteristics were not enough for the national-knowledge solidity. Following the thought of N.Nikoladze ?Consciousness is the way which makes you able to differ evil from kind also mastering science which requires mental exercises, work and some more solid will. The same author emphasized the importance of social awareness and care of knowledge. I.Akhuashvili continues in the above mentioned work about the Georgians' denationalization: ?I think it is time to call everything its name although as great ilia says: ?evil does not like disclosure, but it not the reason to blame ourselves, become deaf, cut tongue when this evil beat us in ourselves and gives a cry all around the world about our nonentity to our shame. consequently, it is necessary to reveal the reasonable evil…as the true reasonable revealing even of a whole nation is taken into consideration as a kind deed and a clever nation is grateful for it and not angry.

In case of the same occasion, I mean repeat of the history our people have to meet this with the high level of self-knowledge. The fact that the danger of national degeneration is real, even nowadays, is seen from the example that the descendents of the inhabited Georgians in Russia cannot keep their nationality after two or three generations and are assimilated within the nations. And this kind of problem can become more and more dangerous if lots of young Georgians leave looking for some jobs out of borders. Consequently, research of the past is necessary for us.

But what was that which made Georgians to become Greek? It was the Ecclesiastical jurisdiction, concretely that Georgians who were becoming perish of Orthodox Patriarchate of Constantinople for some reason -were becoming Grecians.

As it is known Meskheti or Samckhe Saatabago was wide stretched densely populated country. At least one-third of Georgians lived there and following the notification of XV century Georgians were numerous people at that time.

By the Caucasus and near east scale Georgian people were really numerous and it can be seen even after the century wars in the beginning of XIX century when Georgians were 44% of the whole Transcaucasia population. Their number greatly exceeded Azerbaijanis' and Armenians' number. There were impressive number of Georgians In XVI-XVIII centuries in Meskheti. Unfortunately as far as it is known Georgians from Meskheti degenerated at all. Part of them became Muslim, Gregorian or Catholic and the remaining Georgians under Patriarchate of Constantinople jurisdiction became Grecians.

About the created conditions in order to spread jurisdiction in Meskheti is written by Vakhushti as he describes Patriarchate of Constantinople was religiously obliged to pay attention on the abandoned Orthodox Georgians and take care of them.

By 1659 year there was established Mohammedanism in Meskheti, consequently there was built mosques which made the population to be without churches and church-services. So the population of Meskheti was divided in two parts. High stratum-became Mohammedan, but the peasants being without leaders kept the faith of Christianity but Georgian churches were not serving peasants any more having no financial resources for some reasons and with this high stratum did not care about it anymore. As for the high stratum they did not take care of Georgian churches. So Georgian peasants left without Georgian churches or shepherd because of low level of self-knowledge were divided between Greek and Armenian Catholics churches and the part of the peasants which had no influence of non-Georgian churches imitating the high stratums became Mohammedan. As for the high stratums, Ottoman Empire made the financial trap for them which gave them the alternative between property and religion. Unfortunately high stratums preferred Muslim religion to poverty and a bit later their families and servants became Muslim too. Surly it caused the loss of the self-consciousness and made the Georgians to become Tatars. This kind of condition was the reason of the abandoned churches in Qartli, Odishi and in Kakheti, nevertheless they were the saint places for the population who were not Mohammedans and tried to visit them, although there were not bishops or monks.

As we have mentioned part of the peasants remained Christians although for the necessity of these people priests had not been sanctified any more as there were not Georgian bishops consequently Constantinople sent Grecian priests for the peasants. There are protected notifications about deeds of the Greek priests. Eqvtime Takaishvili describes the action of the priests although in another historical epoch. Eqvtime writes: ?The Greek priests tried a lot to rule the villages although the entire village spoke in Georgian, they also tried to set up Greek church-service. For the mentioned purpose one of the priests with insidiousness got the old Georgian Ecclesiastical books…??

Generally, the whole numerous Georgians in Meskheti did not become Mohammedan. Especially their quantities were more in East. There were Orthodox Georgians whose care was up to Patriarchate of Constantinople given by Ottoman Empire like the other linguistically different orthodox living on the Balkan Peninsula. The result was quick without delay as Georgian orthodox population learned Turkish and ecclesiastically became the flock of the Constantinople. Soon some may say about them that ?they lost the language but kept the religion not betraying it?. Christian Turkish orthodox Georgians became perish of the foreign, Greek church.

Urums living in Ottoman Empire

 

Border of Georgians' ethnical exiles were up to Euphrates and even further away consisting river's head and its ravines, concretely the river named Karasud. There were Georgian villages even in Erzurum in XVII century and Georgian bishop of Erzurum seems to be the last Georgian bishop in Meskheti.

The territories along the Erzurum till the black sea were also inhabited by Georgians concretely population of Meskheti was changing by the population of Lazeti. Lazistan or Trapizon's Vilaieti was the country of Lazs and Tchans. Above mentioned wide stretched land with the head of Mtkvari and Chorokhi ravines were also Georgians' one of the Ethno genesis territory. Here were formed Georgian nation; some say that here was ?Arian Qartli?. Lately here was formed ?Georgians' kingdom? (Tao-Klarjeti) which had been the heart of the strong Georgian culture till it became mohammedan.

By the Turkish historian thought “To the north from the river Arezi and Zangi there was Dagestan and Georgia in the 40 days of journey till the sea of Khazars.” Its east side reaches Erzurum. Antioch Patriarch Makar (XVII) who travelled round the whole Meskheti proves that the border of Georgia to the south was up to the river Euphrate's. This kind of information is even proved by Chelebi. For a long time these territories were considered as Georgia and nearby the river Arezi and Erzurum lived Georgians. Arqangelo Lamberti travelled on the territories of Erzurum and found several Georgian villages which had its own Erzrumian leader. In the middle of the XVIII century T. Gabashvili proved not only Georgian churches existence in Gurmishkhani and but also the memories of population that the territory was called as Georgia.

As it was mentioned there were Georgian villages in Erzurum and the territories of Gumishkani had been counted as Georgian by the population. Nowadays by the mentioned information we can definitely say that Urums or the old Greek population was exiled by the Russian government from Erzurum and Gumishkhani to Trialeti and Qvemo qartli. Orthodox population of Gumishkhane and Erzurum were allowed by Ottomans and Russian authorities to move to Greece but orthodox inhabitants refused to exile requiring the territory of province of Tbilisi for dwell. As it seems in XIX century the population calling Gumishkhane as Georgian Territory in XVIII century wanted to stay in Georgia refusing Greek land for living. As scientist I.korelov says the origin of Urums is unknown.

Urums are that very Greeks living in Georgia whose native language is Turkish and are exiled by the Russian authority from Erzurum-Gumishkhane territories as orthodox population. They don't know Greek and with the signs of ethno geography are closer to Georgian-Caucasus's-ottomans' than to Greeks'. There was the thought about Urums' that they are Turkish population who became orthodox. This kind of thought was presented by Greek Orthodox Church leader Panas Eftim who thinks that Urums are that Turks who have become Christian by force. As it is know they have changed the religion but preserved the language. This kind of thought existed about Anatolian Greeks but Greeks who lived on Balkan Peninsula were considered as Slavs by the scientists of XIX century. In the article of 1853 year??British politics-Turkey? F. Engel writes: ?Greeks in Turkey mostly are of Slav origin but their language became Greek???

Why the Greek population of Ottoman Empire was taken as non-Greeks we will discuss it later but now we have to turn back to the thought of I.korelov about Urums. He thinks that Urums from Trialeti lived in Erzurum Vilaieti, mainly to the south-west of it.

As we have mentioned Patriarch Makar found the Georgian villages near Erzurum in XVII century which population was still orthodox having bishop. As it was mentioned even population of Gumishkhani considered themselves as Georgians. Following Korolov, Nowadays a part of Urums left Gumishkhan's territory. Here is the reason why Urums who have left Qaldea and Basiani still have Georgian culture. Nowadays they live in Qvemo Qartli and Trialeti. Even I. Korolov writes that: In Empire of Trabzon there was Chaldea which was lightly colonized by Elins. Here in the mass of foreigners population was not in the habit of keeping them under the influence of its language and habits- to helinizate.

It is possible that the population of Gumishkhani is Georgians. Generally, word ?Urums? means Romanians in Turkish. As it is known Byzantium is a scientific term but The Empire of Byzantium is called as Rome by the population. After Selchuks conquest of the Byzantium Empire even osmals were called by the name of the country-Urums. Georgian historians Vakhushti and Papuna Orbelians call Osmals Urums too and even exiled Turkish Orthodox population was called so. Consequently, Minor Asian is called Urum nevertheless its religion or ethnic.

There are Urums inhabited in Georgia who consists of Kiliss, Kanetes, Pasenss and Lazs. All of them have Greek self-knowledge. Even Lazs who are part of the polulation of Tsalka are Greek inhabitants of Trialeti.

Increase of rights of Greek Church in Turkey

 

After the fall of Constantinople Greek-orthodox Patriarchate was not abolished by Turks, on the contrary, it was given some state functions. By the sultan's thought it has to be the balance and justice between Christians. It was unacceptable to force such a big country to become Muslim at that time. It was even unthinkable to force the country with huge quantity of population and culture become Muslim. The sultan Mehmed II who cared for the justice and justice between Christians created the second patriarchate for Armenians next to the Greek's one. At that time rights of Monophysite people were restricted in the former Byzantium Empire while the governor restored them for the oppressed people.

After this Turks divided Christians in two main fractions that were living on the Turkish territory and declared above mentioned patriarchate as their spiritual leaders. After such kinds of separation of Christian perish Greeks, Bulgarians, Serbs, Albans, Valakhs, Moldavians, Croatians, Carrageen, Syrians, orthodox Arabs, Melkhits, Lazs were under the rule of Greek patriarchate. There are not Meskhs in this list as at that time Meskheti was not conquered by Turks. But in the XVII_XVIII centuries vanishing Georgian patriarchate Greeks fulfilled their rights up to Georgian orthodox perish.

Lazs or Laz-Tchans were the majority of Trabzon population with Qarts. After the Cesarean Trabzon conquest by Turks gradually started the process of changing the religion. The second part of the people who remained orthodox called themselves Greeks and thus gradually forgetting native language got accustomed to Turk-Georgian language but we have to mention that this people reached XIX century not losing its roots at all.

G.Atchariani writes: ?There are orthodox Lazs who are under the control of the Greek patriarchate in Istanbul. They speak Greek and call themselves Greeks. Nevertheless they can be recognized by their accent? They live on the territory of Lazistan concretely on the west side from Platiny to the east till Trabzon and the south of Trabzon till Gumishkhane. Platana, Trabzon, Gumishkhane are the main towns where we can meet them. In the beginning of 1830 years according the treatment of Adrianople a group of Christians from Gumishkhan were inhabited in Qvemo Qartli. These were Turkish Christians who were officially Greeks or Urums by official papers. We should mention that orthodox non-Greek population in Turkey or Europe is also known as Greeks. Frequently in many papers, when there is a talk about religion even Georgian perishes and Georgian churches are called as Greek. Nobody paid any attention that among the exiled Greek population from Gumishkhane were Georgian-Lazs. On the contrary tsarism backed it up to spread knowledge about Greek origin as it was considered as the best way for the Russification. Nowadays there are not Christian Lazs officially they are called Greeks although they still remember about their origin-that they are Lazs.

I.Korelov writes that after the depriving of political rights by Turks Christians were allowed to create independent communities. Mehmed II allowed greeks free religion faith and solved the question of dispersed Greeks inhabiting them in Constantinople. Christians were also given the charter of freedom and safety.

All the things were done to court Greek Church as politically deprived churches were needful to keep order in the country and to neutralize non-orthodox states' power. In any way Greek churches were under the control of Turks.

Tc.Batcashi writes: ?According to ?Kamun-name? which was established by Mehmed II in 1476 year non-Muslims got its status in Constantinople. They were Orthodox and Armenian patriarchates and chief of Jews' Rabin?. After all orthodox population (Greeks, Bulgarians, Serbs, Albans, Valakhs, Moldavians, Georgians) were considered as one Greek community. Patriarch having ecclesiastical or court power had an influence on them and could even condemn to panel servitude. Patriarchate or bishops owned the control of schools and books of orthodox population. They also had the private privilege.

As far as it is known term ?nation? has the religious definition, consequently, every Muslim was Turkish and every orthodox was Greek.

?Between Christians not only Porte (the government of Turkey) but even patriarchate of Constantinople did not recognize any other nation except Greek and generally Balkan Peninsula's whole orthodox population was under the control of jurisdiction of Constantinople patriarchate. This jurisdiction was not only the religious but it also had the secular meaning. Greek patriarchate, his metropolitans and bishops had the rights of court and taxes toward the orthodox Christians-Greeks, Bulgarians, Serbs, Albans, Valakhs, Moldavians, Georgians…?Every school where children of orthodox population were studying was under the control of Constantinople's patriarchate. As usual the process of study was in Greek. Even religious rites were held in Greek and after all these processes in scientific, economic or religious spheres Greek language become popularized. So the guard of Greek language was the patriarchate of Constantinople refusing other national cultural developing?.?

Romania which was historically called as Vlakheti or Moldavia became depended on Turkish forces in XVI century. In 1716 year Romania was given by Turks to a wise community called ?Fanariots?. Fanar was called a district in Constantinople which was inhabited by Greeks who worked on Turks helping them to rule orthodox population. Here was also inhabited Constantinopolitan patriarch. After paying lots of money Fanariots got the right to rule Romania.

?Buying the right to rule the country Fanariots owned unlimited power consequently they started to cover the cost of paid money which brought country to pauperization?. Greek Fanariots' last purpose was to create ?Greek court?.

A.Skurati writes : ?Trying to achieve creating Greek court from Balkans, Greek Fanarians inculcated Greek language and culture by force. In this case Greek hierarchy backed it up. Greeks were nominated as bishops and even church-service was in Greek in towns?.

Here can easily be seen that Romanians, Georgians, Balkans were made to become Greeks in Ottoman Empire. More or less they did it.

Greeks from Fanari took themselves as premium caste of aristocracy, although great part of them were consisted of merchants, sellers and people like these. Gradually, Fanarian Greeks could hold higher and higher posts in Ottoman Empire. Concretly, In 1716 year post of chief of Vlakheti was given to one of these Fanarian. Since then big territory of Vlakheti was ruled by Greeks for century.

Holding higher posts in Vlakheti Greeks have become ?Grammarians? so called bibliophile in Georegian, who was private secretary of chief. Also private reporter which was no less than other posts. Groom, keeper of chief's seal and document keeper were also the posts which were held by Greeks.

In XVI century Greek elements began to invade Vlakheti and by Fanarians government it reached its culmination. Greek Fanariots tried to fill ecclesiastical hierarchy with ethnical Greeks in Vlakheti and Danube. This kind of politics conditioned that among 12 metropolitan there were 7 of Greeks and even in case of national membership of bishops circumstance was the same.

After all churches of Vlakheti were changed on Greek manner and gradually even Romanian language was lost which caused closing of schools. Romanian language like shameful slang was changed by Greek which already presented administrative and instructive language. There were allowed only Greeks to be teachers in ecclesiastic academy in Romania. Subsidies were given only to those churches where Greeks were the head of public worship.

As O.?Gvinchadze thinks Greek bishops of Vlakheti did not like Antimoz Iverieli consequently the rebelion against Greek chief of Vlakheti was discussed by world patriarchate Ieremia III who established the deed which made Antiomoz as man of revolution and rebel against the Ottoman Empire and Vlakheti. After all Antimoz was deprived all kind of ecclesiastical deeds in 1716.

As it seems after falling of Byzantium Empire Greek church lost its political influence on the whole country although instead of it got the new rights, concretely, if Bulgarian, Georgian or other churches had autonomy which shortened Constantinople's rights on non-Greek perish, now all the Christians were under the control of Greek centre. Definitely, this kind of behavior made churches to lose their rights and even autonomous - autocephalous independence which caused disorder of ecclesiastical laws. To say long story shortly invaders preserved the Empire although they used Constantinople in this work.

Fortunately Turks had never been able to conquer the whole Georgia. They only got the part of South Georgia and Meskheti placing its perish under the command of Constantinople.

Georgians' Hellenization in Ottoman Empire

 

As it was mentioned Georgians ethnical exile was up to Euphrates, there was Georgian bishop in Erzurum in XVII century though in XVIII century population of Gumishkhan could remind that not so long time ago their territory was called Georgia. During the centuries Osmals gradually occupied large territories of Georgia, consequently, the border instead of Erzurum was near Borjomi and Qobuleti. Turks were greatly opposed by Georgians as in XVI century it can be seen that Georgians from Erzurum and Euphrates held partisan wars against them harming quite well. This is proved by the war in 1514 where Ottomans were struggling against Persians and during the war even Georgians were drawn into the war against Ottomans. At the beginning of the war Ottomans started attack Persians although they retreated. Catherino Dzeno writes: ?retreated commander in chief went toward Euphrates? but Georgians put obstacle in their way robbing them with light armies. Anyone who dare to leave the army even with a little distance Georgians broke them down. Their strikes were so frequent that even Akinjs who were got accustomed to travel 40 or more miles a day did not dare to leave their army as furious Georgians were ready to kill them all. They were killed not only by swords but even by starvation as they could not manage to supply the army with necessary product because of unprofitable environment. They were ready to be killed by a horrible death instead of the other one.

This note is proved by other authors adding even some details. Although neither Georgian nor foreigner authors gives us information about Georgians who were struggling against Ottomans. We do not know even their court they were from. They were not from Qartl-Khakheti as at that time the court could not manage to struggle against Ottoman's army. M.?Rekhviashvili wonders that it could be army of Imereti against Turks in 1514 but whoever it was it is more possible that it were Georgians from Euphrates and Erzurum as they struggled in partisan way laying siege and not giving possibilities them to provide army with products from near villages. So Georgians who are indicated by foreign authors are inhabited population who were struggling against the enemy with other Georgians. Even after a century there were Georgian villages with its Georgian bishop from Erzurum. Here had also been living Georgians till immigration from Traileti and Qvemo Qartli in XIX century. Although they had already forgot their language and were counted as Turks at that time.

After the conquer of Meskheti and Lazeti orthodox inhabitants had to obey patriarchate of Constantinople who sent the new perish to Greek priests. Following the orders of Constantinople Greek priests owned indefinite right on their people. At that time a priest was not only a man of ecclesiastic but he also owned the right of national man, concretely, he was even a judge who could send a man to penitentiary. This fact is also known to European scientists. They write: ?Greek orthodox clergy has made a decision to have a despotic authority on orthodoxy in Ottoman Empire… A priest is like a judge, a foreman, a teacher and a head of all kind of work. He is not an ecclesiastical man but a master who takes care of everything… This kind of guardianship and despotic control of churches obeyed all kind of spheres in human life?. This kind of circumstance was not adapted by non-Greek orthodox followers as in every successful public movement they banished Greek ecclesiastic servants nominating servants of local inhabitant. A good example of it was in Vlakheti and Serbia. The same situation was in provinces of Ponto… ?I cannot hide that kind of horrible clashes between perish and Greek servants in Unie… we have to mention women who banished clergy out of churches and locked themselves in church… By the instant demand of Patriarchate Porta has sent pasha to punish them his own…? This was not a single case as local orthodox populations massively were becoming Mohammedans trying to secure themselves from Greek Patriarchate.

I think that existence of Georgian bishop in Erzurum in XVII century can be described by their opposing against Greek clergy but as it seems even toward them was accomplished the order which took them under the control of Greek clergy.

?Local inhabitants who were subordinated to Greek Church gradually were becoming Greeks. For example Christian lazs had Greek name and surname and had to study and listen pray in Greek?.

Georgian language with its Lazic dialects was even banished from families as a language of irreligious people. National language was maintained by Lazs who where under the patronage of Georgian church once upon a time. Territorial proximity and economical relationship supported to maintain national language.

There could be a question whether Urums living in Erzurum knew Greek or not? We should think that they had never known Greek. As in XVII-XVIII centuries it can easily be seen that their native language was Georgian with its dialects. Although Turks intervention in XV-XVI centuries made the things to change as Georgian language was banished and Turkish was inculcated upon the country. In XVII century there was Georgian bishop which indicates that at these periods Greek prays were not legitimated yet. Being exiled in Trialeti in XIX century they could not learn Greek in time although there could be excepting of course.

It has to be noticed that local Georgians had its own dependence toward Grecians. The point is that Greeks are also invaders and Byzantium is predatory country for Asia Minor Georgians. Although the invaders managed to make a part of Georgians become Greeks (we mean till Turks' invade). After collapse of Byzantium Empire a part of Greeks changed their language and religion on Turkish with surprise but the rest of them consolidated their Greek self-knowledge.

Tsate Batsashi analyzed Lazs' becoming Greek in Trabzon Empire (till Turks appearance) It is indisputable that there were living Georgian tribes at this territory from the ancient time. Uspensky writes: ?Armenians or Greeks were the minorities on this territory and were lost among masses of other tribes as they were not able to place them under the control of their culture and language at that time? and analyses that we cannot even say that there were a lot of Greeks on the territory of the Empire, consequently, local inhabitants and the king were counted as Lazs, definitely, having the sympathy of Georgia. Although existence under the control of Byzantium Empire had its influence on the country but inhabitants did not lose their native language.

After Turks' conquest a part of Lazs became Mohammedan and the others stayed on their religion-orthodoxy. Lazs who were under the control of Constantinople soon lost their language and self-knowledge as they became Greeks and learned Grecian although native language was preserved by Lazs who had become Mohammedans but estrangement was even in this case as they learned Turkish. Orthodox Lazs who became Greek spoke in Grecian with dialect of Ponto which itself preserves every typical affricates of Iberian-Caucasian words' basis.

Nowadays orthodox Lazs are counted as Greeks but instead of it Turkish historians know that till Turkmens' conquest there were a lot of Georgians and Lazs in North-East of Turkey in the beginning of XI century and the majority of the population were speaking in their language. Lazian language is similar to Georgian and presents tone of Megrelian.

One of researcher of Minor Asia in XIX century writes: ?So it has to be mentioned that inhabitants of this place so called Greeks are Lazs who became Christians during Byzantium Empire and had been keeping it by their own?.

There were Kromols except Greeks and Turks, consequently, it means that not only Georgians were inhabited on the strange territory with strange population. Kroloms officially followed the customs of Muslims although in secret they were Christians. They also were called as Cryptochristians. Khemshins who are degenerated are also Georgians with their origin. ?A part of Khemshins' population consists of Lazs and the remaining are the mixture of people. The main role in their ethno genesis played Armenian church because as it seems a part of Lazs joined them. The same thing happens in the north-east of Anatoly?. Their language is the mixture of Georgian, Armenian and Turkish… In Izmir they were called as ?Somekhve?. Children were given names of official Turkish origin and with this they were also given domestic names which are definitely Lazians with its sonority or content. For example: Tuta- Moon, Burba- Bat, Mutika- Dolphin, Tuni-bear, Mutskhi-Star, and so on. During the travel across Lazeti N.?Mari enumerates surnames of Khemshins which are also Georgian.

Georgians becoming Armenians is not astonishing as even this country like Greek gave a lot of privileges to Armenian patriarchate of Constantinople. Armenian priests like the Greek ones' owned the whole kind of rights?- ?all the spheres of government about Armenians in Turkey are in hands of patriarchate of Constantinople?.?

Different kind of methods were used by Georgians to prevent changing their religion, the rest of population or priests were becoming Gregorian, Catholics or were under the control of Constantinople, consequently, they were counted as Armenians, French or Greeks. That was the reason why Georgians called Muslim Georgians Tatars or Turks. Georgian with Gregorian religion was called as Armenian, Georgian catholic- French, Jew- Jewish.

Being under the control of Grecian church Orthodox Lazs became Greeks in Trabzon, Giumishkhane, Platana and in other places. The rest of them inhabited in Tsalka, Borjomi, Donetski and in Krasnodar.

Grecian-Urums exile on the modern territory of Georgia

 

Entering Transcaucasia Russian government tried to strengthen its positions settling orthodox people in borderlands; consequently, they had made a decision to exile Christian orthodox and Gregorian from Turkey.

Korelov writes: ?There was created a committee in Tbilisi taking control on migration from Turkey in 1810 year. So in 1813 this committee could expel 120 of household of Urums from Antalya to Tetritskaro-Tsintskaro which were conquered by Aga Mahmud Han but the main decision about the banishment was made during the war between Russia and Turkey in 1828-1829?.

There were a lot of advantages for exiled population, concretely; they were free from fiscal payment during 6 years. Urums' banishment on the modern territory of Georgia continued during the whole XIX century.

During the period of wars (1853-1856 The Crimea and 1877-1878 Russia vs. Turkey) migration continued. Their arrival on the modern territory of Georgia continued not only till XIX century but also till XX century. Modern history of Greece starts with ruins of Constantinople conquered by Ottoman Empire. Turks stopped the development of social, economic and political spheres in Greece. Although the wars between Russia and Turkey made Ottoman Empire weak in XVIII century. After, that Russian government tries to expel Greeks and Armenians from Turkey and settle them in Caucasia near the borderland of Turkey. They also wanted to have advanced detachment in this region. Greek expel was guided by the ?committee of Christians' banishment from Turkey to Caucasia? created in 1810 which used ecclesiastic persons to achieve their goals in Minor Asia… There were Greeks serving Russian army and it should be noticed that there was even a special detachment called ?Greek detachment?. By the force of peace treaty Russian army unloaded its army from Erzurum-Baiburt-Giumishkhane, consequently, Greeks were able to return to their native land-Greece, on the contrary, Turks required to free their people and migration into their native country. So according the agreement there had to be the exchange but it has to be mentioned that Greeks who were living in Turkey preferred to stay in Caucasia than to go to Greece.

It is not insignificant or casual fact that Urums have not gone to Greece and made their way toward Georgia. This fact should not be explained by Russian promises. As it was mentioned before they could remember that once Guimishkhane was a part of Georgia in XVII century, the same should be emphasized about the population of Erzurum consequently it can easily be seen that at that time they counted themselves as ?children of Georgia? in XIX century. Greece was strange side for them but Georgia was seen as native. By 1829 year 100 Greek families moved from Giumishkhane and mediana region toward Trialeti. They should go to Tsintskaro and move from there to devastated territories of Tsalka.

By 15 October of 1829 year Greeks had already arrived in Tsintskaro… By 1830 year they are already in Tsintskaro. It can be found in correspondence between Teodore Zemenpulo and governor Zeveleiski. “It is necessary for them to be given arable land, grassland and financial resources to build houses.”

A group of Greeks had chosen Georgian village Beshqashen (nowadays it is Beshtasheni, region of Tsalka) and dwelt there. Soon it caused the next wave of Greek colonizers and Russian generosity allowed 1025 Greek families to move toward Tsalka. The majority of them were husbandman or cattle-breeder. The migrants are coming with the paved way I mean Erzurum-Karsi-Gumbri-Tfilisi-Koda-Ekatherinefield-Shindlara-Tsalka. This group of Greeks made 18 Georgian villages to revive. Greeks called them the names of old Turkish villages were they had lived before. To the south from Tsalka near the village Gomareti (nowadays it is region of Dmanisi) they founded three villages…?In 1855 banished Greeks founded several villages in Adjara (near Batumi). There were also founded villages in South Georgia, Tetritskaro's region. The first world war caused the new migration of Greeks in Caucasus but the conference of Lizan made the special decision for Greek inhabitants about the exchange on Turks. But even in this case great part of Greeks preferred to stay not in their country but in the Soviet Union, concretely in Caucasia.

Here we should pay attention on the scientist's expression which was involuntary but right -??even this time Greeks preferred to return not in their native country but in Caucasia?. ?To return? is possible there where you had come from, so Urums has returned to their real country -Caucasia. They believed that their country was not Greece but Georgia. In this case should be noticed research of the famous expert in Turkish?- Otar Gigineishvili. He writes that Urums who expelled in Greece were called Georgians (concretely in Tesalonick) by the inhabitants and even villages were created by Urums there. Urums willing of being in Georgia can also be seen by their act which was against the conference of Lozana as they had to go to Greece but instead of this they arrived in Goergia. This was the time of 1917 rebel in Russia were was established severe atheistic regime which struggled much against church. This kind of fact can only be describes by the love toward the native country and land.

Some wonder that there are Lazs' roles in ethno genesis of Giumishkhan's and Pasen's as there are kept real Georgian traditions in their existence.

Georgians' Hellenization the modern territory of Georgia

 

Urums who were exiled from Turkey inhabited on the territories of landowners by Russian government. The lands of Garis and Trialeti were owned by: Baratashvili,Kaplanishvili, orbeliani, Abashishvili, Abulfatashvili, Afxazishvili, Takaishvili, Tumanishvili, Iotamishvili, Varazishvili, Gilaqishvili, Eliozashvili, Zazunashvili, Tarkhnishvili, Tulashvili, Magalashvili, Merabishvili, Saginashvili, Sachinoshvili, Sologashvili, Zurabishvili, Aslanishvili, Urufbegashvili, Korganashvili, Shalikashvili, Cicishvili, Sharashidze, Javakhishvili which is confirmed by ?migrations' committee? and was even annunciated to the Russian emperor. It was also presented in statistical description of Georgia in XVIII century.

Urums inhabited a lot of Georgian villages and even founded some villages on the territories of old Georgian villages where still lived Georgian households. For example S.Makalatia writes ?25 of household who had come from Trabzon were inhabited by the government of the king in Cikhisjvari by 1861although it should be mentioned that there had already been few Georgian households as: Kasitashvili, Bliadze and Miqeladze?.?

Greek population had been met by Georgians even in Tsintskaro and the same can be emphasized about other villages.

It should be mentioned that before the migration of Greeks Trialeti and Qvemo Kartli had just become empty. The reason of this were Lezghins and the fear which made the population to move to Kartl-Kakheti, although when these kind of families knew that the government took care of the inhabitants of Traileti a part of them went back to their native lands.

There were Urums with Georgian self knowledge between Turkish migrants who had changed their surnames like Grecians. Nearly every inhabitant who joined the population of Georgian Urums became Grecians which meant changes of their surnames although there still remained some Georgians who had not changed surnames and kept their old Georgian surnames but soon they had become Grecians by their self knowledge.?(Their surnames will be noticed at the end of the book) The created social, economical or political conditions were the main reason of Georgians' becoming Greek in province of Tbilisi. For example nearly ten hectare of lands were given to the migrants but not to the inhabitants except this migrants were given financial sources by Russian government. They were also free from taxes during the years and were given some more privileges for example who would like to get food had to become Grecian.

After Russian government helped Grecian migrants in Tsintskaro soon economically weak or decayed Georgians found themselves under the influence of the migrants and became Greeks. By 1812 year we meet surnames like: Azarashvili, Ioanidze, Besalashvili, Lazarashvili, Abramashvili, Elefterishvili, Iosebashvili, Amiranashvili, Nikolashvili, Vasilisshvili, Petriashvili, Mikheilisshvili, Tevdoreshvili, Estatesshvili, Tomsashvili, Pavlishvili, Svimonashvili, Giorgishvili, Martvelishvili, Stefanesshvili.

By 1822-1855 years we meet surnames like: Kaladze, Arishvili, Bosanashvili, Baratovi, Naniashvili, Feriashvili, Gogolashvili, Sepiashvili, Aslanishvili, Alamazashvili and others.

By 1873 Georgian surnames are changed and the owners of them are becoming Greeks for example since 1886 Tevdorashvili is Tevdorogli but nowadays they are Fedorov…?Kartvelishvili is Gurjievi… Having archives we are able to see how Georgian population lost their surnames and language on their own land.

There were only four of Georgian families by 1873 but they were counted as Grecians in the portray of 1886 year. There is peasant origin in the column of origin and tribe as they tried to lose their trace. There are Georgian Families who live with Georgian surnames although they count themselves as Grecians. These surnames are: Baratashvili (baratovi), Sakalidze, Kekelashvili, Tofuridze.

A part of Georgians met the migrants on their own territory but the most of them recognized themselves as Grecians. Above mentioned surnames know that their ancestors are Georgians. Ilia the son of George Damoev told us that they are Georgians as their first surname was Petriashvili although when it started the period of changing surnames they became Damoevs. Mate the son of Vlas Gurjiev says: “Nowadays there are living Damoevs in the village of Tsintskaro also they can be found in the region of Tsalka.” They are the same Georgians with the same origin. I remember ancestors, grandfathers and grandmothers who were becoming Georgians…?There are Georgians like: Maisuradze, Jamelashvili and Furceladze. A part of Furceladze are Georgians but the others have become Grecians and are Ergishev. Once upon a time Velispiri was named as Erkushaant village so the surname comes from it like Erkushevi, Ergushevi. There can even be such a condition that one brother might be Georgian and another Grecian. How could it be? The question is answered by our respondent. He says: ?Grecians who were exiled in Georgia were helped by the government of King giving some economical resources, sugar, flour, soap, match, salt and other kind of required subject?. In case to receive the help Furceladze and others changed their surnames and nationality. Beruashvili is Georgian surname although there are Berovs with Grecian Naitonality in Velispireti. Everything was clear after the talk with them as they told us that they had changed their surname and nationality at the beginning of XX century…There was also another Georgian surname like Tetradze who had come from the village Gomareti although after they had been mixed with Grecians they were called ?Gurjs? which means Georgian in Turkish. So the story of Gurjievs' surname starts from here but the second story is connected to the surname of Kartvelishvili…There is also a thought that surname Gurjiev comes from Berdzenishvili… How should it happen that Georgians on their own land became the member of the other ethnic group. The banishment was provided by Russian government with the special conditions…?The exiled population were given lands and made them free from taxes…?By Fedia Kilingarova's story his grandfather accidently killed a man…?Chedilashvils who are from Ofreti did not changed their surnames but are counted as Grecians…?There are 4 families of Zazashvili who are Zazavs and are counted as Greeks although they have still kept their native language. Kaladzes'(Kaliachovs) had the second surname like Garibadze. Kaliachevs are also counted as Greeks. There are a part of Georgians and a part of Greeks among Lazarishvils. There could also be found Lazarovs who had changed the surname but remained Georgian. The main reason of changing the surnames and becoming Grecian was the given food-stuffs.

There were Georgian priests for a long time in the church of Rekhels (which was reconstructed in 1877year). In the XX century Georgian priest Darchia was changed by the Grecian priest who himself started to multiply the perish. Grecian priest promised the perish that in case of changing the nationality or surname he would give them the best life providing them with rice, soap and other food-stuffs.

Georgians were counted as politically unreliable people by Russian government consequently they tried to have faithful people on the frontier border like Armenians or Grecians. This was also the reason of becoming Grecian or Gregorian but nevertheless the main reason of Georgians denationalization was the lack of national self-knowledge and self-consciousness in XIX century.

Changed Surnames

 

As it was mentioned before the main part of Georgians became Grecians in Ottoman Empire concretely they were orthodox population who had been under the control of Constantinople patriarchate by the rule of Ottoman Empire. Conquering Meskheti a lot of perish became under the control of Constantinople as Meskheti (with Guria) was a big country. Except this Georgians ethnical banishment border was up to Euphrates. The same can be mentioned about Lazistan which was also inhabited by Georgian tribes. The surnames which were changed on the territory of Ottoman Empire are unknown although Georgians who became Grecian on the territory of Province Tbilisi are known better. A part of the surnames are well studied concretely population of Tsintskaro, Rekha and others. In fact these materials are crude and unstudied but by way of an exception can be mentioned works of Akhuashvili: ?Ethnic of Kvemo Kartli in historian aspect?, ?Grecian settlements in Kvemo Kartli?. Using these works we extracted the surnames of Georgians who had become Grecians. (At first we wrote the old surnames and then the new ones.)

Aridashvili-Aridashvili-Ardaogli-Arudovi?Aslanishvili-Aslanovi?Aslamazashvili-Aslamazovi?Aivazashvili-Aivazovi?Anesishvili-Amosovi?Amanatashvili-Amanatovi-Trapuntovi?Baratashvili-Danachievi-Baratovi?Balabanishvili-Balabanovi?Berdzenishvili-Gurjievi?Bostanashvili-Bostanchogli-Bostanjievi?Beruashvili- Berovi?Bichiashvili-Bidjoevi?Gabashvili-Gabaogli?Giorgashvili-Giorgiogli?Gigolashvili-Gigolovi?Vakhtangishvili?(Has not changed the surname. Nationality-Grecian)?Zazashvili-Zazovi?Tevdorashvili-Tevdorogli-Fedorovi-Anozovi?Tofuridze?- (Has not changed the surname. Nationality-Grecian)?Tomashvili-Tomazovi?Tetradze-Gurjievi (II)?Tatarashvili-Tatarogli-Tatarovi?Iordanashvili-Chulfaevi?Isanamishvili-Simonovi?Isakidze-Fakhorovi?Kaladze-Kalaichogli-Kalaichevi?Kostanashvili-Kostanovi?Kekelishvili (Has not changed the surname. Nationality-Grecian)?Lazarishvili-Lazarogli-Lazaridi?Mazmanishvili-Mazminogli-Mazmudovi?Murmanishvili-Murmanovi?Muradashvili-Muradogli-Muradovi?Mirzashvili-Mirzaogli-Mirzoevi?Merabishvili-Marabogli-Marabovi?Nikolasshvili-Nikolaogli?Nikoladze-Nikodmovi?Petriashvili-Petreogli-Dimoevi?Sakalidze (Has not changed the surname. Nationality- Grecian)?Sefiashvili-Sefianovi?Sabadze (Has not changed the surname)?Uflisashvili-Uflaogli-Plizologli?Farajanashvili-Faraogli-Farajanovi?Feriashvili-Feriogli-Karaqlevi?Furceladze-Ergishevi?Falavandishvili-Falavandogli-Paflenovi?Kartvelishvili-Gurjievi (III)?Gviniashvili-Khristoforov?Karajashvili-Karajaogli-Karjievi?Chedilashvili (Has not changed the surname)?Kechinashvili-Khechinovi?Khamajagashvili-Khamajagovi-Chilfievi?Jaliashvili-Kilinkarovi?Javarashvili-Javaraogli

The list is incomplete.

As it was mentioned before Urums who were living in Erzurum and Gumishkhane and who were exiled in Georgia had never known Greek as they were not ethnically Grecians. Their native language had always been Georgian although during Ottoman Empire control they gradually lost it and got accustomed to Turkish. It should be mentioned that they tried to teach them Grecian giving them some lessons in Greek language by the initiative of Tbilisi University in 1980 years.

We should say much more about Georgian Orthodox perish as it is interesting why they were called as Greeks by Mohammedans and not only by them even Europeans called them in this way. Mohammedans frequently differed people not by the ethnic way but by the religion.

All the Christians I mean perish of “Grecian” religion were counted as Greeks by them, consequently, till the creation of Ottoman Empire Georgian Kings were officially called as “Descendent of Grecians” by Egyptian sultans. This kind of title can also be translated as “son of Grecians and sword of Greeks”

After the ecclesiastical split Georgians supported Greeks and were solid protectors of Grecian orthodox traditions, consequently, Europeans called them “Greeks” and the members of the Grecian church. The same can be emphasized about Ottoman Empire as all the orthodox perish, Georgian and even not Georgian was called as Grecians there.

1990, Borjomi ?