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1956 ???? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?????, 2 ????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????. ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????, 15 ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??-10 ?? ??-11 ?????? ??????????? ??????????.

??????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?4612:

  1. 1956 ???? 2 ????????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????.

  2. ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????.

????????? ?1

??????????!

??? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????????, ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???????????? ????. ????, ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????, ????? ???? ?????-???????? ??????? ?????, ???? ????????? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????.

?????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????????. ????????, ????????, ?????????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????. ???? ????????? ????????????.

??????????! ???? ???????? ????? ????????, ????? ???????? ????? ?????. ??????? ???? ????????? ????????????! ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????! ???, ????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????! ?????? ???? ????????????!

???? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????!

???? ???????? ???????? ???????????! ????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????! ?????? ????????? ???? ?????????, ???????? ????.1

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????????? ?2

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??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? 1957 ???? 3, 4 ?? 5 ?????? ?. ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????:

???????????: ?. ????????
???. ?????????: ?. ??????????? ?. ??????
??????? - ?. ??????? ????????????, ?????????? - ?. ???????? ??
??????????? - ?. ???????????? ?? ?. ???????????? ????????????

???????? ????? ?4-57 ?????????? ????:

1. ????? ???????????? ?? ????????????, ??????????? 1939 ???? 31 ????? ?. ????????, ?????????, ????????, ?. ???????? 47-? ??????? ?????? ??-11 ?????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?. ?21-??, ????? ???????????? ?? ???????;

2. ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????, ??????????? 1939 ???? 2 ?????, ???. ???????, ?????? ??????, ?????????, ???? ??????, ?. ???????? 42-? ??????? ?????? ??-10 ?????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?. ?13-??, ????? ???????????? ?? ???????;

3. ????? ??????? ?? ???????, ??????????? 1940 ???? 4 ??????? ?. ????????, ?????????, ???? ??????, ?. ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??-11 ?????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?. ?1-??, ????? ?????????? ?? ???????;

4. ???????? ??????? ?? ???????????, ??????????? 1940 ????, ?. ????????, ?????????, ????????, ?. ???????? ??-60 ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?. ?3-??, ????? ?????????? ?? ???????;

5. ????? ?????? ?? ????????, ??????????? 1939 ???? 26 ?????, ?. ????????, ?????????, ???? ??????, ?. ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??-10 ?????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?. ?1-??, ????? ?????????? ?? ???????;

6. ????? ???????? ?? ??????????, ??????????? 1939 ???? 12 ?????? ?. ????????, ?????????, ???? ??????, ????? ???????? 47-? ??????? ?????? ??-11 ?????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????? ?. ?4-??, ????? ?????????? ?? ???????;

7. ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????, ??????????? 1939 ????, 24 ??????, ?. ????????, ?????????, ???? ??????, ?. ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??-11 ?????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?. ?9-??, ????? ?????????? ?? ???????;

8. ????? ??????? ?? ??????????, ??????????? 1941 ???? 2 ?????, ?. ????????, ?????????, ?. ???????? 39-? ??????? ?????? ??-10 ?????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?. ?7-??, ????? ?????????? ?? ???????;

9. ????? ?????? ?? ????????????, ??????????? 1939 ???? 26 ????? ?. ????????, ?????????, ???? ??????, ?. ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??-11 ?????? ?????????, ????????? ?. ????????, ???????????? ?. ? 45, ????? ?????????? ?? ???????;

????????? ????????????????? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??? 58-10 ???. I ??????? ?? 58-11 ??????.

????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????:

1956 ???? 14 ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????, ???? ????, ??? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????. ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?. ????????, 1956 ???? 1 ?????????, ?????.

???????????? ????????????: ?. ????????????, ?. ???????, ?. ??????? ?? ?. ??????????? ???????, ??? 1953 ???? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????-????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????????, ???????? ????? ?? ?????????????. ?????????? ?????, ?? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????.

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?????? ??????????? ????, ??? 1956 ???? 5-9 ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ????????? ?. ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????.

???? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????. ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????: ?. ???????, ?. ????????, ?. ???????????, ?. ????????? ?? ?. ??????????.

?????????? ???????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????? ?. ???????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ??????? 1956 ???? ??????? ?????, ?. ???????????? ??????.

???????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ?. ???????????? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????.

?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????, 1956 ???? ???????? ???? ????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ???? ???????, ??? ?. ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????????????? ????? ?. ????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????.

???????????? ????????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????: ???????????, ??????, ??????, ??????????, ???????, ????????, ????????? ?? ???????????, ????????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????? ????????? 1956 ???? 1 ?????????, ????? 12 ??????, ?. ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ?? ??????, ??? ????????? 7 ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ???????.

?????????? ???????????, ?????? ???????? ???????????, ??? ????????????, ???? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????????.

?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????????, ??? ????? ????? ??????????????? ?????. ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????? ???????????. ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????, ???????? ????? ??????????, ??? ??? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????????, ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????.

????? ?????????? ????, ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???. ??? 319-? ?? 320-? ???????? ?? ????????:

??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ????????????????? ??????????? ??? 58-10 ???. 1-???. ?? 58-11 ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????? ????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ??? 58-10 ?????? I ???. ???????? ???? ???? ???????????? ???????, ??? 58-11 ?????? ???. ??? 58-2 ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ???????????? ???????. ??? 46-? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? 5 ???? ???????????? ???????.

??????? ?????????? ?? ???????, ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ???????????? ???????, ??? 58-11 ?????? ???. ??? 58-2 ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ???????????? ???????. ??? 46-? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? 4 ???? ???????????? ???????.

????? ??????? ?? ???????, ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????, ????? ???????? ?? ?????????, ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????????? ???????, ??? 58-11 ?????? ???. ??? 58-2 ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? ???????????? ???????. ??? 46-? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? 3 ???? ???????????? ???????.

?????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???. ??? 50-? ?????? ???????????, ????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????.

???????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????.

???????????: ?. ????????
???. ?????????: ?. ??????, ?. ???????????.2

(????? ???????)

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1. ???? ??????????? ??? ??????, ?. ?6, ?????. ?5638, ?. ?9, ????. 33.

2. ???? ??????????? ??? ??????, ?. ?6, ?????. ?5638, ????. 95.

The Beginning of the National Movement

Mary barbakadze

On the morning of December 2nd, 1956 several peculiar proclamations were posted on the streets of Tbilisi. On December 15, two weeks after the proclamations have been posted on the streets the state security committee arrested the following the 10th and 11th graders.

The Archival Bulletin presents the following documents from the criminal case ?4612:

1. Proclamations which were made and spread by the fellows on December 2, 1956;

2. Verdict passed by Supreme Court of the Georgian SSR

Document ?1

Georgians!

Have you not forgotten the bloody night of March 9? Have you not forgotten the bloody years 1924 and 1937? These were the years when the Georgian people were attacked and slaughtered. Until when shall we be subordinated to the communist enemy? Our ancestors did not forgive their abusers and we must not disgrace ourselves either.

Today, the whole of humanity is concerned with the offenses committed by Moscow. The issue of the Georgian people's existence is on the agenda. For this reason, it is time to unite under our flag to fight unanimously against our conqueror.

Look around! The whole world is seething. Judgment Day is being preparing against the Kremlin butchers. The blood that has been shed by them in Tbilisi, Poznan and Budapest demands justice. Their days are numbered.

Georgians! Nobody is our defender. We must help ourselves. We must gain freedom with fighting! Best regards to the heroic Hungarian people! Let their heroism be an example for all captivated nations! Keep your hands away from Hungary!

Down with the occupants and their military gangs who have dirtied their hands with our people's blood!

Down with the Georgian communists who have betrayed us! Long live free and independent Georgia! The betrayer who takes off this poster will strictly be punished!”1

On December 15th, two weeks after the proclamations had been posted in the streets, the Committee for State Security (KGB) arrested the following high school students: the 11th graders of the Tbilisi secondary school ?47 Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdia and Temur Dmitrievich Metreveli; the 10th grader of the Tbilisi secondary school ?42 Anatoli Abesalomovich Mikadze; the 11th graders of the Tbilisi secondary school ?1 Tamaz Tarasovich Gunjua, Teomuraz Giorgievich Tsertsvadze and Guram Petrovich Dochanashvili; the 11th grader of the Tbilisi secondary school ?60 Vladimer Vasilevich Sikharulidze; the 10th grader of the Tbilisi central musical school Merab Ivanovich Kostava; and the 10th grader of the Tbilisi secondary school ?39 Guram Giorgievich Skhirtladze.

These young people, members of a secret organization called „Gorgasliani, behaved very bravely. They protested against the bloody policies of the Soviet System, not only in Georgia but throughout the Soviet Union. They called on society to fight for the liberation of Georgia and to overthrow the Soviet regime. They were tried in April 1957.

Document ?2

The Verdict

On April 3rd, 4th and 5th, 1957, in the name of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, the chamber of criminal cases of the Tbilisi court discussed the case ?4-57 at a public trial in Tbilisi. The chamber's members were as follows:

Chairman: D. Giorgadze
Public Judges: I. Tamazashvili T. Chkhaidze

Secretary: D. Tsakadze; Prosecutor: S. Bliadze
Lawyers: M. Alkhazishvili, Sh. Lekveishvili

The accused were as following:

1. Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdia - born on March 31st, 1939 in Tbilisi, nationality - Georgian, non-party, 11th grader at Tbilisi secondary school ?47, address: #21 Griboedovi St, no previous convictions;

2. Anatoli Abesalomovich Mikadze - born on May 2nd, 1939 in the village of Marani, Abasha region, nationality - Georgian, member of the Communist Union of Youth, 10th grader at Tbilisi secondary school ?42, address: #13 Gentseni, no previous convictions;

3. Tamaz Tarasovich Gunjua - born on January 4th, 1940 in Tbilisi, nationality - Georgian, member of the Communist Union of Youth, 11th grader at Tbilisi secondary school ?1, address: #1 Sanapiro St, no previous convictions;

4. Vladimer Vasilevich Sikharulidze - born in 1940 in Tbilisi, nationality - Georgian, non-party, 11th grader at Tbilisi secondary school ?60, address: #3 Besiki St, no previous convictions;

5. Merab Ivanovich Kostava - born on May 26th, 1939 in Tbilisi, nationality - Georgian, member of the Communist Union of Youth, 10th grader at Tbilisi music school, address: ?1 Javakhishvili St, no previous convictions;

6. Temur Dmitrevich Metreveli - born on April 12th, 1939 in Tbilisi, nationality - Georgian, member of the Communist Union of the Youth, 11th grader at Tbilisi secondary school ?47, address: #4 Niaghvari St, no previous convictions;

7. Teimuraz Giorgevich Tsertsvadze - born on April 24th, 1939 in Tbilisi, nationality - Georgian, member of the Communist Union of the Youth, 11th grader at Tbilisi secondary school ?1, address: ?9 Vedzini St, no previous convictions;

8. Guram Giorgievich Skhirtladze - born on March 2nd, 1941 in Tbilisi, nationality - Georgian, 10th grader at Tbilisi secondary school ?39, address: ?7 Ilia Chavchavadze St, no previous convictions;

9. Guram Petrovich Dochanashvili - born on March 26th, 1939 in Tbilisi, nationality -Georgian, member of the Communist Union of the Youth, 11th grader at Tbilisi secondary school ?1, address: ?45 Melikishvili St, no previous convictions;

The above mentioned people were accused of violation of Article 58/10 Part I and Article 58/11 of the criminal code of the Georgian SSR.

The following has been asserted on the basis of preliminary and court investigations:

On December 14th, 1956, the State Security Committee (co-founded together with the Council of Ministers of Georgia) launched a criminal case against the individuals. They were accused of being members of an illegal anti-Soviet youth organization, as they had drawn up anti-Soviet materials and had spread them throughout Tbilisi in the night of December 1st, 1956.

According to Z. Gamsakhurdia, A. Mikadze, T. Gunjua and V. Sikharulidze, they had gathered in 1953 and discussed different matters. Although they had thought of forming a group of which the major focus would be opposing the activities in society of which they disapproved, the group was not formed then; hence, no illegal act was committed.

However, as the case materials read, after March 5th to 9th, 1956, Zviad Gamsakhurdia discussed the issue of forming an anti-Soviet organization again, of which their major aim was to liberate Georgia. An illegal organization was formed, and it was decided to expand the group with new members: M. Kostava, T. Tsertsvadze, G. Dochanashvili, T. Metreveli and G. Sikharulidze.

The illegal group, which had been formed under the initiative of Zviad Gamsakhurdia, held their first meeting in July 1956 in Gamsakhurdia's house.

The group carried out several illegal activities, for example, they purchased a type writer with Georgian prints, funded by money collected through the efforts of several group members.

At their last meeting in November 1956, they decided to print anti-Soviet papers in G. Skhirtladze's flat, after which they were to be spread and posted along the Rustaveli and Plekhanovi Streets in Tbilisi.

After the papers had been printed, the accused - Gamsakhurdia, Mikadze, Gunjua, Sikharulidze, Kostava, Tsertsvadze, Metreveli and Dochanashvili - met each other at the Tbilisi Opera House on the night of December 1st, 1956, to post seven copies of anti-Soviet papers.

The accused individuals found themselves guilty after the investigation and during at the trial.

The court chamber took into consideration the fact that all of the accused were underage and that they had realized their crimes and mistakes. Moreover, the accused had not committed any crime before, and it was the first time their cases had been brought before the court. In addition, nobody encouraged them to form the organization and commit anti-Soviet activities.

However, the accused were found guilty on the basis of Article 58/10 part I and Article 58/11 of the criminal code of the Georgian SSR.

The court passed the following sentence on the basis of Article 319 and Article 320 of the criminal code of the Georgian SSR:

Zviad Gamsakhurdia was sentenced to three years imprisonment on the basis of Article 58/10 Part I plus five years imprisonment on the basis of Article 58/11 and 58/2 of the criminal code of the Georgian SSR. Finally he was sentenced a five-year imprisonment term on the basis of Article 46 of the criminal code.

Anatoli Abesalomovich Mikava, Vladimer vasilevich Sikharulidze and Merab Ivanovich Kostava were sentenced to three years imprisonment on the basis of Article 58/11 of the criminal code plus four years on the basis of Article 58/2 of the criminal code of the Georgian SSR. Finally they were sentenced to a four-year imprisonment term on the basis of Article 46 of the criminal code.

Tamaz Tarasovich Gunjua, Teimuraz Giorgevich Tsertsvadze, Temur Dmitrevich Metreveli, Guram Giorgevich Skhirtladze and Guram Petrovich Dochanashvili were sentenced to two years imprisonment on the basis of Article 58/11 of the criminal code of the Georgian SSR plus three years on the basis of Article 58/2. Finally the were sentenced to a three-year imprisonment term on the basis of Article 46 of the criminal code.

Whereas the court took into consideration all the existing extenuating circumstances and Article 50 of the criminal code of the Georgian SSR the verdict is changed into probationary sentence.

The judgment is not subject to appeal.

Chairman: D. Giorgadze
Public Judges: T. Chkhaidze, I. Tamazashvili”2

____________________________________

1. On December 15th, two weeks after the proclamations

2. LEPL MIA Archive of Georgia, f.6, c.56 38, v.9, p.95 .