Chkhaveri – is a famous indigenous grapevine variety of Guria, known since ancient times as a provider of high quality wine.
In some villages of eastern Guria (in Khidistavi, Ianouli, Burnati, and Sahcamiaseri) Chkhaveri is also known by the name Chkhaveli.
A few materials about Chkhaveri are presented in the work by E. Nakashidze (18), while a complete linguistic analysis of its name has been given by acad. Iv Javakhishvili (10).
The lack of literature sources does not reveal and prove its indigenous nature. However, the botanical and agro-biological characteristics seem to be similar to the vine varieties of Ponto; the characteristics such as the strength of growth, climbing, the consistency of the grain, intensiveness of coating, late ripening and others could have been the adaptable means to the ecological surroundings of the Black Sea coast.
Therefore, Chkhaveri, with its morphological and biological features, is representative of the ancient grapevines group of the Black Sea, „Prol. pontical subprol. Georgica“ Negr. (19).
Academician Iv. Javakhishvili gave a linguistic analysis of Chkhaveri and compared Chkhaveri and Chkhaberdzuli, stating that Chkhaveri should be considered as a contracted form of Chkhaberdzuli- with the cutting of the suffix -but he also concludes that they are not identical, and research results are in agreement with this.
Acad. Iv. Javakhishvili compares the same prefix „chkha“ to the Georgian word „grjgha“ and considers this latter its phonetic variation. Because, by his explanation, this word is old Georgian and would be a general term meaning ‘a thick bunch-like tree – „grjgha“) and suggested the words Chkhaveri and Chkhaberdzuli to be a description of the way the vine forms.
This issue needs to be investigated more comprehensively, as the word „chkha„ also has another meaning in Georgian- „a climbing vine with many bunches,“ people used to keep the grape during the winter with such sprouts, and it is not far from being reasonable. As much in the past as nowadays, Chkhaveri is mostly distributed throughout Western Georgia along the Black Sea coast, in the territory of Kolkheti; namely in the districts of Guria and Adjara, in Abkhazia and in lower Imereti.
Before the spread of fungal diseases and phylloxera, Chkhaveri was distributed as high vineyards in nearly all the districts of Guria, and especially in the central and upper mountainous villages.
According to elder people and local viticulturists (Al. Sharashidze from the village of Dablatsikhe, and Al. Khundadze from the village of Sachamiaseri), in the past, people used Chkhaveri for making wine that was distinguished by its tenderness, taste, and alcohol. It was famous even outside of Georgia. Since the 20th century, firstly due to fungal diseases, then due to the impact of phylloxera, this variety has been massively eliminated, as people did not know about defensive measures against these diseases.
Now, only several vines remain in the mountainous villages of Guria (in Likhauri, Makvaneti, Bakhvi, Askana, Dablatsikhe, Fartskhma, Kokhnari and others). Its productivity and quality varies depending on the weather conditions.
High vineyards of Chkhaveri are quite widely spread also in central Adjara, specifically in the villages of Kedi, where- even though they are not properly cultivated – they can develop and grow normally and productively (with 100 - 150kg grape per vine). The relatively good state of these vineyards can be explained by the late spread of phylloxera and fungal diseases.
Old grafts of Chkhaveri (about 45 years old), formed as low vineyards, remain in Chokhatauri districts, in the villages of Dablatsikhe and Sachamiaseri and, in spite of old age, they are satisfying in development-growth as well as in harvest.
Recently, great attention has been paid to the recovery of Chkhaveri. In Bakhvi village (Makharadze district) on the initiative of SSR Samtresti, a Soviet viticulture farm was cultivated, in which 14 hectares is dedicated to Chkhaveri; vines formed as a low vineyard. New vineyards of Chkhaveri are also cultivated in Chokhatauri and Makharadze districts, on the collective and private farms. Low vineyards of Chkhaveri can also be found in lower Imereti, Adjara and Abkhazia, where it is completely satisfactory in development, harvest and quality of production.
According to1947 data, the land scope dedicated to Chkhaveri in Georgia comprised up to 134.5 ha, out of which 57 ha was cultivated as high vineyards. From 1947 to 1959, in the districts of Guria, Adjara and Abkhazia, 57 ha of low vineyards of Chkhaveri were being cultivated. Thus, the scope of low vineyards of Chkhaveri at the end of 1959 was defined as 222 ha, while, including high formations, – 279ha.
Such a limited distribution of Chkhaveri is determined by its resistance to the downy mildew and, generally, its sensitivity to environmental conditions can explain its low productivity and late ripening.
This affects people’s choice to cultivate, for example, Tsolikouri (from Imereti) rather than Chkhaveri, because Tsolikouri is successfully used in high-quality table white wine production (in Sachamiaseri, Kokhnari, Dablatsikhe, Sakvavistke, Bakhvi and others). However, the distribution of Tsolikouri should not restrict the cultivation of Chkhaveri, as it provides original material for pink, high quality table wine.
In 1955, in the Chokhatauri district in the villages of Kokhnari and Sachamiaseri there is an established special Soviet farm, where it is planned to cultivate 150 ha vineyard of Chkhaveri.
The botanical description was defined, and the exploration of agro-biological characteristics were conducted on the Soviet farm of Bakhvi (Makharadze district), as well as in Chokhatauri and Kedi.
The farm is cultivated in the middle of Bakhvi village. Its exposition is mostly east or west facing, inclined by 10-20o, situated 170 - 180m above sea level. The soil is red sub-clay, poor in structure and quality, requiring constant improvement by organic fertilizers. The variety has been described on the eastern foothill, where the vines are cultivated as low vineyards, hanging on stakes and formed according to Georgian rule – with one or two fruiting and basal shoots.
The young shoot
During the break of buds, the young shoot is whitish with a reddish hue. The cone of growth is whitish-red, thickly covered with white hairy down, which often becomes a reddish wine-color.
The first, newly broken leaf is thickly covered with white hairy down. The margins of the leaf are reddish. The surface of the leaf is coated with whitish hairy down on the underside. The petiole is reddish and coated with whitish down. The following second leaf is colored bright green on the top, the coating is more depicted around the veins and takes on a reddish-bronze shade; on the underside, and the coating is similar to felt and is whitish-red. The petiole is greenish-violet, slightly covered with grayish down. On the underside, it is coated like thick felt. The down becomes whitish-gray with a reddish hue from the second leaf; from the fourth – becoming grayish. The petiole is lightly covered with grayish down.
Young sprouts are bright green, and violet – to the side of the sun and lightly covered with grayish hairy down. The coating becomes more expressed near the tip.
The one year sprout
Generally it is middle sized or thin. The axils are darker in coloring, distanced 8.5 - 15cm from each other.
The mature leaf is bright green, roundish, middle in size- about 16.8 - 18.4cm long and 14.8 - 17.3 wide.
The incision of the leaf petiole is mostly lyre-like. The basis is rounded, or can be deep, or similar to an arch with a square basis. The upper incision is slightly penetrated or lyre-like; the lower incision is slightly split.
The leaf is three-lobed. The margin of the tip creates a right angle to the blade, rarely – obtuse. The teeth on the margins are triangular with rounded ends.
The leaf is covered with a thick felt-like coating on the underside, while on the upper side it is smooth or wrinkled like a net. The surface of the leaf is flat. The proportion of the petiole to the major vein is 1 - 1.2. The petiole is bare, bright green or reddish wine-colored. The margins with teeth are bright yellow.
The flower is hermaphroditic, has normally developed pistil and stamens; there are 5 stamens in a flower, rarely 4 or 6. The stamens are nearly twice as long as the pistil and significantly deviate from it, in some flowers horizontally so. The number of flowers in an inflorescence is 200 - 360.
the pedicel of the bunch is 5-6cm, the bunch is middle-sized or smaller, 10 - 15cm long and 7 - 12cm wide; there are 90 - 100 berries on a bunch; large bunches are 17cm long and 12cm wide, whereas small bunches are 10cm long and 7cm wide. The general shape of a bunch is cone-cylindrical, sometimes with a wing; is thin in structure or can also be quite dense. 1/3 of the pedicel is woody, while the rest is green and grass-like.
The length of a grain’s pedicel, including the receptacle is 5 - 7mm and is green. The receptacle is wrinkled and narrow cone-shaped, rarely wide; and the berry is tightly attached it.
The berry is dark red-pink colored, middle-sized or smaller, 11 - 13.5mm long and 10.8 - 13.2 mm wide, nearly round, wide in the middle, with a rounded and symmetrical end. The length of large berries is 13.5mm, while the width is 13.2mm; a middle-sized berry being 11mm long and 10.8mm wide. The skin of the berry is not thick, the flesh is quite juicy, sweet and pleasant tasting. The skin is covered with wax-like spots.
There are one to four seeds in a grain, mostly two, which are longish- about 6 - 7mm long and 3 - 3.5mm wide and dark brown, yet – to the abdomen – yellow. The basis is placed in the middle of the rear and is longish-oval. The rear is smooth; the basis of the tip is yellowish, while the tip – dark brown and 1.5mm long.
Observations of the sequence of biological phases were conducted on the Soviet farm of Bakhvi village, and in Chokhatauri district (in the villages of Dablatsikhe and Kalagoni) and in the collective vineyard of the village Kedi (in the SSR of Adjara).
The mean characteristics of biological phases revealed from long observation, are given below in Table 1.
In Chokhatauri and Makharadze districts, the vegetation period of Chkhaveri totals 210 - 222 days from the break of buds to the complete maturity of the grape; in the district of Kedi – up to 214 days.
The grape comes into the ripening phase towards the end of August and the beginning of September, while extensively ripens in the first half of November. Leaf fall begins from the end of November and finishes in the first half of December. In these districts frosts in autumn are a characteristic phenomenon, and if ever there happens an annual leaf fall, it is due to fungal diseases ad especially downy mildew. The sum of active temperatures during the entire vegetation period is from 3879 to 4100 °- completely satisfactory for late grapevine varieties to achieve the full maturity of the grape.
In Eastern Georgia, Chkhaveri is cultivated only in collectives – at the research station of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, in Telavi (Kakheti) and in Vaziani (Kartli).
Observation indicates that in Kartli, Chkaveri is not able to reach full maturity. For the beginning of November, it consists of 15 - 16% sugar that remains the same in the following months as does the general acidity; so, the grape of Chkhaveri in this zone is not usable.
However, Chkhaveri seems to be quite prospective and useful for cultivation in lower Imereti (Vani) and in Abkhazia, where, as a rule, it comes to maturity towards the beginning of November.
In the districts of Guria-Adjara, the autumn is quite warm and is helpful for the green parts of Chkhaveri to reach maturity; the only obstacle is downy mildew.
The development and growth of the vine
In the districts of Guria-Adjara, where all supportive ecological conditions are present and the vine is well-cultivated, it is not characterized with strong growth but moderate. The length of one year sprouts at the end of the vegetation period are 2 - 2.5mm long, with a width of 7 - 8.5mm.
Observation shows that low vineyards of Chkhaveri are weaker in development and growth than canopies.
Chkhaveri is characterized by rich harvest and high productivity if formed as a canopy and accompanied by suitable climatic conditions and proper cultivation- it provides 50 - 60kg grapes per vine. In the districts of Adjara (especially in Keda) nowadays high formations of Chkhaveri can be found; large 60 - 70 years-old scrawling vines on trees. Their harvest in the suitable weather conditions comes to 100 - 150kg per vine.
If formed as a low vineyard and pruned short, the harvest reduces.
Below are given the three-year characteristics of the harvest of low vineyards of Chkhaveri in the districts of Guria-Adjara (see Table 2).
As Table 2 indicates, the harvest of Chkhaveri when formed as low vineyards comes to 1.5 - 1.9 kg per vine. The harvest coefficient is between 1.2 and 1.5, while the average weight of a bunch is from 95.7 g (in Bakhvi) to 123.8g (in Kalagoni). On the Soviet farm of Bakhvi, the harvest of Chkhaveri is not more than 45 centners per hectare and this is natural, because it is represented by less productive variations of vines.
Relatively larger productivity is characterized in the Chokhatauri district in the villages of Dablatsikhe and Kalagoni. Although the vines are quite old (about 35 years old) and grafted on inappropriate rootstocks (on Rupestri Dulo), the average harvest per vine is defined as 1.7 - 1.8 kg; meaning 50 - 55centners per hectare. The same can also be said about low vineyards of Chkhaveri in the Kedi district, where the average harvest totals 55 centners per hectare and not more. A similar picture is shown in the collective vineyard of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, where the average harvest comes to 1 - 2kg per vine; about 33 - 66 centners per hectare. The coefficient of harvest totals 1.2. The average weight of a bunch is 100 - 125g. Observation confirms that the harvest of Chkhaveri can be increased by heavier loading; this is proved by the examples of Makharadze and Chokhatauri districts, also in Abkhazia – in the village of Bombori (Gudauti district).
Research in this direction was administered in 1955 - 1957 by the direct participation of Dr. N. Chkhartishvili in the Soviet farm of Bakhvi (Makharadze district) and the collective farm of Orjonikidze name in Akhalsopeli (Gudauti district). Below are the results of said research (see Table 3).
Of distributed forms in the Bakhvi zone, the better characteristics of productivity were shown in the case of the two-sided short cordon, and then followed by cordon with many hangers maintained by free pruning. The former promotes the achieving of 99 - 100 centners of grape per hectare, whereas the latter is characterizes by average productivity – 93 – 94 centners per hectare, however by the Georgian two-sided cordon, it gives only 50 - 55centners per hectare.
Also the observation indicates, Chkhaveri is more adaptive to such forms that make it able to maintain its old parts and this is closer to its natural constitution. This is proved by examples in the village of Akhalsopeli, in Orjonikidze collective farm (Gudauti district) where Chkhaveri is cultivated according to cordon forms, structured by Agr. A. Iobidze. Dr. N. Chkhartishvili (1956-1957) conducted an observation of these forms and concluded that better outcomes in productivity are created by one-level cordon (with a 2 x 1.5 and 2 x 2m feeding area), by loading with 50 - 55 buds per vine. In this situation the productivity of the vine increases up to 130 – 150 centners per hectare; in addition, such heavy loading is not problematic for the vine’s growth and does not impact negatively.
An interesting outcome of productivity is also achieved in relation to pruning length, as is presented below (see Table 4)
As Table 4 indicates, when pruning occurs at 2 - 3 buds on a inflorescence, the harvesting elements are significantly slower in growth; better properties in development and harvest are shown in the case of pruning at 8 - 9 buds on the sprout; this is also supported by the observation of the productivity of particular buds (see Table 5)
This observation shows that the basal buds (1, 2 and 3) on the fruiting sprout are less productive; more productive buds are placed in the middle of the sprout, from 5 up to and including 10; Among them, the most productive is the ninth (with 114.7g ) (this characteristic of the first bud totals up to 42.44g).
Hence, the optimal length of pruning should be considered as 8 - 9 buds that will significantly more than double the harvest in comparison with short pruned vines.
Therefore, the harvest of Chkhaveri can be improved and leveled up to 80-100 centners of grape per hectare, by selecting appropriate rootstocks and planting, by pruning in the most useful way and form, and by cultivating professionally.
The first signs of harvest appear from the third year, while full harvest occurs from the fourth or fifth year. Even so, Chkhaveri has well-developed flowers during some years and, due to unsuitable meteorological conditions can experience flower fall of about 8 - 10%.
Durability against pests and fungal diseases
Chkhaveri is very vulnerable to downy mildew and powdery mildew, especially to the former. This is the reason why the local population is uninterested in its cultivation. Downy mildew is particularly hazardous to newly planted vines and grafts. They should be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture 3 - 4 times, while common vineyards of Chkhaveri should be sprayed twice more. Against powdery mildew, one additional administering of phosphorus is sufficient.
During the autumn, the berry of Chkhaveri suffers the negative influence of Botrytis - impacting on the quality of the wine.
Response of species to different environmental conditions and specific characteristics
Hilly, south-facing highlands and sunny areas rich in calcium carbonate, are suitable places to cultivate Chkhaveri. These kinds of places result in a sparkling, cheerful, harmonious and full table wine, and also in quality product for Georgian champagne. In lowland, plain areas, in spite of surplus moisture, the berry is not split, and after proper administering of chemical treatment, develops normally. Yet Chkhaveri in such places creates low quality material, and quite simple, low quality wine.
Due to excessive moisture and warmth, the lowland areas are more dangerous for Chkhaveri in relation to the influence of fungal diseases; creating a necessity of dedicating greater height (101.5m) to the vine and an additional administering of fungicide over its vegetative parts as much with Bordeaux mixture as with phosphorus.
The impact of winter frosts in the districts of Guria-Adjara is generally insignificant (-5o, -8o, -10o), and has no influence over the vegetative parts of Chkhaveri or their development. Nor do the spring frosts impact negatively; only minimally. All vegetative phases sequence normally.
It was noted above how negative the influence of short form pruning by Georgian method, or Giuos, can be. This is problematic not only for the quantity and quality of the harvest but also to the growth and development of the vine. Many year experience and observations have proved that Chkhaveri, as a strongly tended to climber, requires high forms to gain a greater productivity. Therefore, the existing form of low vineyards should be replaced by high formations.
The grafting specificity of Chkhaveri, namely its relationship with phylloxera resistant rootstocks, has not been explored. Only some testing procedures have been done by use; four types of rootstocks (Riparia X Rupestri 3309, 10114, Shasla X Berlandieri 41 b and Berlandieri X Riparia 420a) were taken, of which more adaptive were Berlandieri X Riparia 420a and Riparia X Rupestri 3309.
The samples for mechanical analysis were taken from the low vineyards of Chkhaveri cultivated on the Soviet farm of Bakhvi, in the villages of Dablatsikhe, Kalagoni and Kedi. The results of the analysis is given in Table 6.
As Table 6 indicates, the significant variation in different samples is not manifest. The average weight of a bunch is placed between 95 and 123 g; the weight of 100 berries is not more than 110 - 139g and the weight of 100 seeds cones is 3.1 and 4.8 g. Also, there is no indication of a significant difference in the constitution of the bunch.
The outcome of juice is 73.9 - 80.06%, the average being 77.4%. The residual components (sprout, seed, skin) makes up 22.6%. The weight of a large bunch of Chkhaveri totals 251.9g, a small bunch – 79.8g.
In 100 berries there are about 150 seeds, out of which 14% contain one seed, 52% - two, 29% - three, and 5% - four. For chemical analysis the same samples were used. The results of the chemical analysis are given below in Table 7.
In mentioned districts, even though the harvest was maintained late, the amount of sugar could not be increased. This is natural, because exactly during this time, the hydrothermal coefficient in these areas is significantly higher- supplying the berry with extra water consistency. However, the existing amount (19.5 - 21%) of sugar is quite satisfactory for quality table wine, while acidity (of 8.1 - 9.6%) for European type wines. High acidity will decrease naturally during the maturity and wine-making process and become normal for table wine. The wine of Chkhaveri, that was tasted at several open and closed Degustation Commissions, is characterized by the following features: bright pink, tender, harmonious, consisting ofa normal level of alcohol and acidity.
Below is given the data presenting the chemical characteristics of Chkhaveri wine, the samples of which were taken from the vineyards of Bakhvi, Kalagoni, and Kedi in 1950 and 1951 (see Table 8).
As Table 8 indicates, all samples of Chkhaveri wine consisted of quite a good level of alcohol (11.0 - 12o) that is completely satisfactory for quality table wine. Although the acidity characteristic seems to be high, it complements the wine with a specific character – pleasantly fresh.
Also the extract should be considered as normal, there is extra tannin (0.95 - 1.12) caused by the influence of chacha. The low consistency of volatile acidity (0.5 - 0.7) in all samples indicates the freshness of the wine.
The chemical and organic characterization of table, naturally sweet and sparkling wines from the Chkhaveri grape are presented below in tables 9 and 10.
The results of the chemical analysis of Chkhaveri wine that was conducted in the Sakare testing vineyard by eno-chemists V. Demetradze and K. Goraevi (1, 14) are given in Table 10.
The wine sample taken from the wine that was made in Vakijvari village presents a quite mature wine consisting of a normal level of alcohol (10) and an insignificant amount of sugar (0.049). The high level of the general acidity indicates that the grape was picked relatively early; the lack of volatile acidity is a sign of the wine’s freshness and validity (see Table 11).
The wine samples produced in Chaisubani consist of a higher level of alcohol than that of Vakijvari (2.97) and quite a satisfying amount of sugar (1.835), and lower acidity (0.45). This is determined by the late picking of the grape that affects the evaporation of water, and the concentration of sugar. The low amount of volatile acidity (0.067) and normal consistency of glycerin in the same sample are signs indicating the validity and balance of the wine.
These samples took the following evaluation by V. Demetradze: the first is clear, bright yellowish, quite harmonious, with a specific aroma. The second is bright yellowish, but more energetic and quite sweet.
As noted above, Chkhaveri belongs to the very late ripening varieties. In nearly all districts of Guria and Adjara it gains a proper consistency of sugar and acidity only from the beginning of November, and therefore the harvest takes place at this time.
The observation confirms that Chkhaveri is better picked in the first half of October in order to be used for the making of champagne wine, while for quality table wine it should be picked in the middle of November.
Grapes left on the vine can be kept without being dried until December, while after picking- until the spring.
In the districts of Guria and Adjara (in Bakhvi, Kokhnari, Burnati, Khulo, and Keda) two variations of Chkhaveri are distributed: TsivChkhavera and the less-harvestable Chkhaveri. The former is cultivated in the districts of Adjara, while the latter in Guria and Adjara.
Tsivchkhavera is different from Chkhaveri in some botanical characteristics, for example, its leaves are more lobed, smaller than middle-sized; its bunch is thin and smaller, while the berry is small, roundish, dark pink and thin-skinned; the skin easily detaches from the flesh; in a berry there are three seeds, and it has a less pleasant taste. In Khulo, Tsivchkhavera becomes completely mature in the second half of October. It is very susceptible to fungal diseases and, in highland vineyards, because of their influence, the leaves of Chkhaveri vine fall early and the sprouts cannot reach maturity, after which it becomes particularly vulnerable to the influence of winter frosts.
The less-harvestable (Mtsiremosavliani) Chkhaveri – can be found as high and low formations of vines in the major plantation of Chkhaveri. In some places (for example on the Soviet farm of Bakhvi), this variation is extensively cultivated (25 - 35%). It has the following morphological features: at the time of full grape-ripening the upper surface of the leaves takes on a red coloring, and it has small, unsophisticated, thin and mostly cylindrical bunches. The berry is bright pinkish, roundish and smaller than middle-sized. Similar to Chkhaveri, it is not thick-skinned, and is juicy and sweet. When formed as low vines, it gives 500 - 600g per vine, more frequently – 300 - 400g. The average weight of a bunch is 30 - 70g. The harvest coefficient is 1 - 1.2. The same characteristics are shown by this variation in high vineyards, except for the production of smaller bunches.
In some villages of Chokhatauri (in Fartskhma, Kokhnari, and Sachamiaseri), it is distributed as several low-formed vines known as Chkhaveri of Sapaicho, while in western Guria (Likhauri and Makvaneti), the varieties Sachkhavera and Chkhaberdzuli can be found.
After exploration of these varieties, it is confirmed that they are different from Chkhaveri as much in morphological as in agro-biological and agro-technical characteristics and should be classified as independent varieties.
General evaluation and distribution by district
Chkhaveri, as a proliferative wine variety, is worthy of great attention. In the districts of Western Georgia, situated along the Black Sea (Guria, Adjara, and Abkhazia) characterized by long warm autumns, Chkhaveri can be successfully cultivated and used for high quality table wines.
The chemical composition and organic characteristics of its production give us reason to conclude that it can also be used as good material for champagne wine. This is proved by the work conducted in the Viticulture and Enology Station of Sakare according to which the champagne samples of Chkhaveri received quite a good estimation.
Also of interest is the use of the grape of Chkhaveri. This is quite valuable in its strong storage ability during the winter, as much in the western as in the eastern Georgian districts, more so than other varieties, except Ojaelshi. In spite of long endurance when left on the vine, the grape does not dry. People can pick whenever they want, even in January; and picked grape can last until spring.
Of negative characteristics of Chkhaveri should be noted its weak resistance to fungal diseases and relatively low productivity.
These weaknesses can be successfully overcome by conducting certain agricultural activities, namely: against fungal diseases the vine should be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture twice more; and once by phosphorus. Regaring the increasing of productivity, this requires wide selective work to differentiate more productive grafts and then cultivate them. In addition, the existing forms used for Chkhaveri vines should be denied; as Chkhaveri is characterized by a strong capacity to climb it should be cultivated as canopies, by two-sided cordon or free pruning method, or by dedicating 1m height and loading with 36 - 40 buds. This will provide 3 - 4 kg grape per vine which means 130 - 160 centners per hectare (when dedicating a 2 x 1.5m feeding area, i.e. 3300 vines per hectare).
Chkhaveri should be widely implemented and cultivated in the districts of Guria-Adjara to get high quality production for table and champagne wines.
It is also prospective for the viticulture districts of Abkhazia.
1. Demetradze V., Materials for Dividing Western Georgian Viticulture and Enology Industry into Regions and Specialization. Kutaisi, 1936.
2. Ketskhoveli N., Zone of Cultural Plants in Georgia. Tbilisi, 1957.
3. Mirotadze A., Types of Racha-Lechkhumi. Tbilisi, 1939.
4. Ramishvili M., Vine Types of Guria, Samegrelo and Adjara. Tbilisi, 1948.
5. Ramishvili M., Guria, Indigenous Vine Varieties, Institute of Agriculture Moambe N3, Tbilisi, 1939.
6. Tabidze D., Chkhaveri, Works of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, Vol. III, Tbilisi, 1947.
7. Sharden J., Trip to Georgia Tbilisi, 1935.
8. Cholokhashvili S., Guide Book - Viticulture, Vol. II, Ampelography. Tbilisi, 1938.
9. Chkhartishvili N. Pruning-Formation of Chkhaveri Vine. Collection about Future Viticulture in Eastern Georgia. Part V. Tbilisi, 1958.
10. Javakhishvili Iv., Economic History of Georgia, Vol. II. 1934.
11. Jorjadze L., Viticulture, Wine-Making and Improvement. Tbilisi, 1876.
Ketskhoveli, N. Georgian ampelography = საქართველოს ამპელოგრაფია / N. Ketskhoveli, M. Ramishvili, D. Tabidze ; [transl. by Dimitri Dolaberidze, Magda Javakhishvili, Sopho Chakhnashvili ; ed.: Katie Davise (main ed.), D. Maghradze, Larisa Vashakidze, Teimuraz Ghlonti]. - 2nd edition. - [Tbilisi] : Exclusive Print Ltd., . - 456 p. : ill. ; 32 cm.